revitalising innovation at 3m case study

Our expert writer will complete a good academic paper. We offer quality help to support you with fulfilling your homework. Feel free to make your order right now, .

Use the following elements when identifying and citing an image, depending on the information you have available. It is your responsibility to do due diligence and document as much as possible about the image you are using:. The Chicago Manual of Style online can be searched for norms on appropriate ways to caption illustrations, capitalize titles of visual works, or cite print materials that contain images. Best practice is to not include images within a bibliography of works cited. It is common, instead, to create a separate list of images or figures and their source, such as photographer even if it's you or collection.

The image below is scanned from a published book. Image from James Young, ed. If you need to use this image in a published work, you will have to seek permission. The image below was found through Google Images and downloaded from the internet.

How to Give Credit to Sources When Writing a Research Paper | Pen and the Pad

General vs. Unfamiliar Knowledge You do not need to cite material which is accepted common knowledge. If in doubt whether your information is common knowledge or not, cite it. Formats We usually think of books and articles. However, if you use material from web sites, films, music, graphs, tables, etc. When you work on a research paper and use supporting material from works by others, it's okay to quote people and use their ideas, but you do need to correctly credit them.

Even when you summarize or paraphrase information found in books, articles, or Web pages, you must acknowledge the original author. See our detailed " Write an Annotated Bibliography " guide. Citation management software let's you save, organize, format and share citations from a variety of sites e. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

Formats If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application Word, PowerPoint, Excel then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption.

Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title not on the figure itself and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc. Web references can be listed separately e.

References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list and any citations in the text to other articles in the same Special Issue. Reference style Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association.

List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author s in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. Examples: Reference to a journal publication: Van der Geer, J. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, , 51— Reference to a journal publication with an article number: Van der Geer, J. Heliyon , 19 , e Reference to a book: Strunk, W. The elements of style. New York: Longman, Chapter 4. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.

How to prepare an electronic version of your article. Smith Eds.


  • Author Sequence and Credit for Contributions in Multiauthored Publications.
  • Comments (60);
  • college essay using quotes.
  • Quoting Material.
  • Citations Video Playlist.
  • MLA: Using Sources Correctly;
  • Guide for authors - Information and Organization - ISSN ;

New York: E-Publishing Inc. Reference to a website: Cancer Research UK.

Language & Lit

Cancer statistics reports for the UK. Reference to a dataset: [dataset] Oguro, M. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. Reference to a conference paper or poster presentation: Engle, E. Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article.

This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data.

For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages.

How to Read a Research Paper

Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content. Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online. Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file.

If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list.

Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.

When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx e. For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Noble Blogger Guidelines: How to Cite Pictures

Data statement To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect.

For more information, visit the Data Statement page. Online proof correction Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.